Did You Know?
A few facts:
- Considered a leafy vegetable
- Has medicinal purposes
- Grows most actively in the winter
How to get rid of Common Lambsquarters:
- Remove mechanically
- Treat with herbicides
Information by Rakesh Chandran, Ph.D., WVU Extension Service Weed Science Specialist
A Weed with Uses Dating to the 9th Century
Common lambsquarters (
Chenopodium album) is a weed that belongs to the pigweed (Amaranthaceae) family
under the goosefoot (Chenopodiaceae) sub-family with leaves that resemble the shape
of a goose’s foot. Its etymology may be traced back to the 9th century English
harvest festival called “Lammas quarter.” Then, during the consecration of a loaf
of bread made from the first harvest of grains carried out to mark off that quarter,
a lamb was brought to the altar with meals partially characterized by greens made
from this plant, which is how it came to be known as common lambsquarters.
Common Lambsquarters Identification
Common lambsquarters is a summer annual considered to be a major weed in North American
row crops, such as corn and soybean, as well as sugar beet and potato. This relatively
shallow-rooted herbaceous plant grows under a wide range of conditions, especially
in disturbed and fertile habitats, such as barnyards and farmsteads. The stems
have reddish streaks on them and are somewhat succulent. The leaves, also succulent,
are powdered especially on the undersides with a mealy substance, giving it a whitish,
lustrous appearance. Being in the same sub-family as spinach and beets, it may
harbor pests and diseases of these crops, such as beet leafhoppers and spinach
mildew. It also may serve as an alternate host of the insect common stalk borer,
a pest of tomatoes and corn, and the green peach aphid (see photo below). It is
a prolific seed producer with each plant producing over 70,000 seeds that possess
a dormancy of over 20 years.
As alluded to earlier, common lambsquarters is considered to be a leafy vegetable. Seedlings, leaves or tender stems can be consumed fresh or boiled as a potherb. It is considered to have higher levels of proteins, vitamins and minerals, such as iron, than cultivated spinach or cabbage. Seeds can be dried and ground to prepare bread, cakes or gruel – the food grain quinoa belongs to same genus as common lambsquarters. An oil called ascaridole, possessing anthelmintic properties, can be extracted from the leaves of common lambsquarters. While this plant is considered to be of value as a fodder, large quantities may lead to nitrate poisoning in livestock and oxalic acid poisoning in sheep and swine. It is also known to take up significant quantities of phosphate from the soil during early stages of growth.
Controls for Common Lambsquarters
During the early stages of its life cycle, common lambsquarters can be managed by
mechanical methods, such as hoeing or cultivation, to control small populations.
Mulches, such as black plastic or straw over newspaper, are effective to control
this weed in backyard gardens.
Large populations may be controlled by application of herbicides specific to labelled crops. Commonly used selective herbicides containing the active ingredient dicamba effectively control this weed, especially during early stages of growth. Common lambsquarters biotypes have developed resistance to herbicides in the triazine and ALS-inhibitor families of herbicides in North America.
Author: Rakesh Chandran, WVU Extension Weed Science Specialist
Last Reviewed: July 2020
Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services does not imply endorsement by West Virginia University Extension Service nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label. Be sure to obtain current information about usage regulations and examine a current product label before applying any chemical. For assistance, contact your county Cooperative Extension agent.