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Get the 2021 Garden Calendar

The Science of Gardening

A woman snaps beans with text stating: Rooted in Heritage: 2020 WVU Extension Service Garden Calendar.

The WVU Extension Garden Calendar is produced and distributed each year as a service to West Virginia’s many home gardeners and agricultural producers. The annual calendar is just one of many meaningful projects, programs and outreach efforts provided by WVU Extension throughout West Virginia’s 55 counties.

If you have gardening questions or want more information, please contact your county’s WVU Extension office. Be sure to check out information for controlling garden pests year-round and related learning activities for even more opportunities.

Enjoy this year’s Garden Calendar!

Download the 2021 Garden Calendar  Get a Garden Calendar at Your Local County Office
This PDF download is provided as a convenience for printing the document at home.
The WVU Extension is committed to providing reasonable accommodations upon request.

Note: To print as many Garden Calendars as existing funds allow,  the WVU Extension may not be able to honor web or email requests for mailed calendars. Please contact your nearest county office to get a calendar. Your understanding is sincerely appreciated.

Fresh from the Garden Calendar

Grafting as Plant Propagation

An apple hangs from a tree branch.

Vegetative, or clonal, propagation is the only way to get genetically identical copies of an individual plant.  

Fruit trees and ornamentals are propagated by using vegetative parts of a plant and placing them onto another plant through a propagation technique known as grafting or budding.  

Read about Grafting as Plant Propagation

Legumes & Nitrogen Fixation

A row of plants with a stake reading, "2/1 Provider Snap Beans".

Garden crops, such as peas and beans, are unique plants that can establish a nitrogen fertilizer factory in their roots. Members of the legume family develop a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobia bacteria that operate the nitrogen factory.  

Read about Legumes & Nitrogen Fixation

How Pathogens Infect Plants

An unidentified culture.

Pathogens are disease-causing organisms usually in the group of microscopic biotic agents. These organisms can survive all over the environment – air, water, soil and even on the surface of seeds and transplants.

Different varieties of crop plants have different levels of tolerance and infection-preventing capacity against these pathogens. However, in conducive environments – when temperatures are 68° to 77° F and foliage remains wet due to rain or overhead irrigation, followed by high relative humidity or cloudiness – these pathogens can infect plant parts. Here’s a little bit more about how different pathogens can infect plants, causing them to get sick and sometimes die.

Read about How Pathogens Infect Plants

Putting Down Roots

A potato with toothpicks holding it sprouting roots in a glass jar.

Roots are an essential organ of the plant. Understanding how roots function related to plant growth and development is the key to successful gardening.  

Roots anchor plants to the soil or other objects, transport water and nutrients, as well as store many important compounds for plant growth and development.  

Read about Putting Down Roots

How Plants Use Nutrients

A hand till device in freshly moved soil.

Nutrients are essential elements that plants use for growth, development and reproduction. Plants need a balanced source of nutrients to support growth.  

There are 17 different nutrients that are essential for plants, and they all have a specific function. Three of these elements come from the water and air, while the remaining elements are taken from the soil.  

Read about How Plants Use Nutrients

Companion Planting

Companion planting with tomatoes, etc.

Companion planting is the practice of growing two or more species of plants that are beneficial to one another in close proximity. There are multiple ways that these plants help one another, including pollination, pest control, habitat for insects, space maximization, natural trellising and increase in crop production.   

Some plants provide necessary nutrients that allow other plants to thrive. For example, legumes provide nitrogen compounds to other plants, such as peas and beans planted with corn.

Read about Companion Planting

What is Heliotropism?

A sunflower blooms large.

Light from the sun provides the solar energy used by plants for photosynthesis. Heliotropism, or solar tracking, is when a plant follows the movement of the sun during the day. Rooted in ancient Greek, “helio” refers to the sun and “tropism” means a turning or movement of a living organism toward or away from an external stimulus, such as light, heat or gravity.

The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is the best example of a plant that displays this phenomenon. Young sunflower plants follow the sun from east to west during the day and then, reorient themselves during the night to face east in anticipation of the sunrise.

Read about What is Heliotropism?

The Role of Pollination

Flowers being pollinated by a bee.

Pollination is essential for reproduction in seed-bearing plants, and therefore, much of the foods and ecosystems we enjoy. 

Pollination is the physical transfer of pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma. A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from flower to flower.  

Read about The Role of Pollination

Worms, Worms, Worms

A mess of earth worms on a table.

Earthworms benefit your garden soil in many ways. These underground excavators burrow channels in soil, making it more porous and improving drainage. They also bring some of the subsoil closer to the surface, mixing it with topsoil and increasing the amount of quality planting soil available.

Earthworms help plants grow by providing better airflow to the roots. Worms’ excretions are rich in nutrients and bacteria. And, the slimy secretions that earthworms produce contain nitrogen, which also promotes plant growth.

Read about Worms, Worms, Worms

How Plants Use Water

A person waters flowers.

Water is an essential nutrient for plants and comprises up to 95% of a plant’s tissue. It is required for a seed to sprout, and as the plant grows, water carries nutrients throughout the plant. Water is responsible for several important functions within plant tissues. 

Water is necessary for photosynthesis, which is how plants use energy from the sun to create their own food. During this process, plants use carbon dioxide from the air and hydrogen from the water absorbed through their roots and release oxygen as a byproduct. This exchange occurs through pore-like stoma on the leaves.  

Read about How Plants Use Water

Germinating Seeds

A mess of plants sprouting from germinated seeds.

Germination is the process by which a plant grows from a seed into a seedling. Seeds remain dormant until conditions are favorable for germination. All seeds need water, oxygen and optimal temperature to germinate.  

When a seed is exposed to the proper conditions, water and oxygen are taken in through the seed coat. The embryo’s cells start to enlarge. Then, the seed coat breaks open and the root emerges first, followed by the shoot that contains the leaves and stem.  

Read about Germinating Seeds

A Note from the Dean

A scenic WV mountain vista sunrise.

Dear Friends of WVU Extension, 

The past year generated a renewed interest in gardening. Seasoned gardeners poured their hearts and souls into perfecting crops, while the more novice gardeners took this opportunity to try home gardening for the first time. Our Family Nutrition Program received more than 25,000 requests for seeds as part of its “ Grow This! Challenge,” and families enjoyed learning about the benefits of gardening. 

Read about A Note from the Dean

Request a Garden Calendar

Visit your local county office to get a copy of WVU Extension's free Garden Calendar.